SACRAMENTO, Calif. â€“â€“ He calls it the UnCollege movement.
Nineteen-year-old Dale Stephens is urging his peers to rethink the need for college, arguing that they can get more out of pursuing real-world skills than completing homework assignments and studying for exams.
â€œI want to change the notion that a college degree is the only path to professional success,â€ said Stephens, who grew up in Winters and now lives in San Francisco, where he is building the UnCollege movement and developing a Web-based company.
Stephens is part of a small but growing chorus of entrepreneurs, free thinkers and former students who are questioning the value of higher education. The attack is coming from multiple directions: those who say college costs far more than it should; those who say students learn far less than they should; and those who argue the graduation rates are abysmal.
With tuition rising much faster than inflation, borrowing for college has reached record heights. Two-thirds of graduates now leave school with debt, with the typical borrower owing more than $34,000, according to FinAid.org, an authority on student lending. Nationwide, student debt is likely to top $1 trillion this year â€“ signaling to some that education is the next mortgage bubble.
The backlash against college comes, paradoxically, at the same time demand for higher education is soaring. Applications to the University of California and California State University reached record numbers this year.
But it could be that the economic downturn is responsible for both the rise in college applications _ as students seek a leg up in the job market _ and the sentiment that college isnâ€™t necessary, as they take on more debt to get their degrees.
â€œAs family incomes, particularly in the middle class, are stretched and strained, and tuitions rise and state support lessens, (itâ€™s not surprising) you would begin to hear voices that say, â€˜Whatâ€™s the value here?â€™ â€œ said Jerry Lucido, executive director of the Center for Enrollment Research, Policy, and Practice at the University of Southern California.
The high price of undergraduate education is at risk of hampering technological innovation, said a spokesman for Peter Thiel, the Silicon Valley venture capitalist who founded PayPal and was an early investor in Facebook.
â€œBy the time people are 24, 25 or 26 they often have so much student debt and are tracked into certain careers that they canâ€™t take a short-term risk and start a company,â€ said Jim Oâ€™Neill, who heads the Thiel Foundation.Stephens dropped out mid-way through his freshman year at Hendrix College in Arkansas when he realized that â€œthe direct impact I could have on the world by engaging the community around UnCollege far exceeded the impact I could have by completing homework assignments,â€ he said.
â€œThere were people with good ideas, but we werenâ€™t applying them. We got to talk and write research reports, but there was no execution,â€ Stephens said.
In promoting UnCollege, Stephens is urging young people to do the opposite _ get experiences in areas theyâ€™re passionate about, without worrying about the book knowledge that comes from school.
Attacking higher education from another direction are two professors who recently published a book called â€œAcademically Adrift: Limited learning on college campuses.â€
Richard Arum of New York University and Josipa Roksa of the University of Virginia argue that many students gain surprisingly little knowledge during college. Their research shows that over four years of college, 36 percent of students â€œdid not demonstrate any significant improvement in learning.â€ Too many students, the authors say, are â€œdrifting through college without a clear sense of purpose.â€
Many of those arguing that college is unnecessary for success are like Stephens â€“ technological whizzes who have taught themselves computer programming and other highly marketable skills.
Those guys did not need a degree to make it big in the business world. But for the majority of Americans, piles of evidence show a college degree is increasingly valuable.
College graduates earn 65 percent more on average than high school graduates, according to a College Board report last year. And during the recession, employment rates have been far higher among college graduates than those with less education. Economists predict that the labor market of the future will demand even more college graduates than today â€“ a million more in California alone.
â€œWe are not saying that every single person has to go to college,â€ said Hans Johnson, a researcher at the Public Policy Institute of California, which has determined that by 2025, 40 percent of the stateâ€™s jobs will require a college degree.
â€œBut by and large, when you look at the averages, you are much more advantaged and have more opportunities if you have more education.â€