In the 1970s, scientific research involved creative thinking and
an adept pair of hands.
Today, science requires high-performance computing, gene chips,
nanomolecules, biosensors and nuclear magnetic resonance.
Neurotoxins, carcinogens, radioactivity and dozens of hazardous
materials line shelves in research laboratories.
Researchers are exposed to X-rays and other ionizing radiations
on a day-to-day basis.
“There is all kinds of different wastes – high-level wastes
versus very low-level wastes,” said Jim Abraham, a radiation safety
officer at CSU. “(It depends) on the energy and type of particles
In this era of nuclear race, biowarfare and chemical terrorism,
safety in science is important.
It is being underscored in scientific institutes, universities
“With the advent of science, we are going to have
radioactivity,” Abraham said. “Of all the countries I know, the
U.S. has the most strict regulations.”
Abraham said high-level wastes that come out of nuclear reactors
are usually under very high security.
“High-level wastes are kept in very tight containers,” Abraham
said. “(In fact), they mix the liquid wastes with silicate to
solidify and make glass out of it.”
He said the wastes that come out of CSU labs are relatively
low-level wastes. Nonetheless, elaborate security measures need to
“I think that CSU is very proactive in protecting its
biowastes,” Abraham said. “We can’t do anything out of the scope of
what the Nuclear Regulatory Commission says.”
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission comes under the branch of the
federal government and inspections are carried out every two
The university has its own radiation safety committee and
reports to the state of Colorado.
“The university has a radiation safety committee that does
unannounced inspections,” Abraham said.
National laboratories that deal with higher-level wastes have
higher security regulations.
Ward Whicker, a professor at the Department of Environmental and
Radiological Health Sciences, is involved in a project for risk
assessment at the Los Alamos National Laboratories in Los Alamos,
While LANL has its own monitoring station to assess risks, the
New Mexico Environment Department has insisted on an independent
assessment by an outside institute.
“The security there is very high,” Whicker said. “You have to
have special badges to get on the site.”
Whicker is currently on a contract with LANL, in collaboration
with a Risk Assessment Corporation based out of South Carolina.
“One of LANL’s goals is to reduce the risks. Our job is to
provide an objective assessment of the risks and publish it in a
way that will be understood by the public,” Whicker said. “Not only
will we provide risk assessment, but also a method for making
decisions in the future as to how the land will be managed in the
The risk assessment project involves analysis of published data
and extensive studies on site.
“There are about 12 people that work for (RAC). They have
different backgrounds, ranging from hydrology to atmospheric
sciences and chemical toxicology,” Whicker said.
The study involves assessment of risk to people who live away
from the labs and the analysis of contamination to air and water
close to the site. Workers in the labs are monitored.
Whicker said communicating the risks involved to the public is
one of the main challenges in this kind of study.
“We are doing a study on the best way for stakeholders to
involve in a study like this,” Whicker said. “What is the best way
to communicate with them? How can we communicate the technical
aspects? These are challenges.”
For large laboratories such as LANL, the containment of wastes
becomes that much harder.
“It is a very complicated study because the lab has a lot of
different facilities. They release hundreds of things to the
environment,” Whicker said. “(Also) there are several different
streams close to LANL. There’s outdoor recreation, like hiking, in
the canyons close by.”
Moreover, the stakes are higher at a place with such high-level
“Los Alamos is certainly a place where they do weapons research.
There is highly classified information. If a terrorist were to blow
up such a site, there would be huge problems,” Whicker said.
High regulations may be painstaking, but graduate students Yeon
Lee and Jes Kuruvilla said they are not too worried about
“I feel pretty safe,” said Lee, a student in the Department of
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. “We have a protected area;
outside of that there is no radiation.”
Jes Kuruvilla, another biochemistry graduate student,
“Personally, I am not scared of radiation,” Kuruvilla said. “It
is not a big deal. We were shown that rocks from the mountains have
higher radiations (compared to what we deal with).”