WASHINGTON â€” President Barack Obama on Monday will propose a new federal budget that is $90 billion smaller than the one he offered last year and includes a combination of cuts and revenue increases aimed at chopping $1.1 trillion from the deficit in 10 years.
The presidentâ€™s $3.73 trillion spending plan cuts many popular programs, while increasing spending in selected education and infrastructure programs designed to bolster the nationâ€™s economic competitiveness.
It seeks to shrink the deficit from an estimated 7 percent of gross domestic product this year to 3.2 percent in 2015, maintaining it at roughly that level through 2021.
In demonstrating a willingness to make cuts, Obama hopes to seize the initiative in what is certain to be a long and bruising debate on spending with congressional Republicans, who already have signaled a desire for much sharper cuts. In his budget, Obama made clear he will argue that while reductions are necessary, cutting to extremes is unwise.
â€œWeâ€™re eager to work with the Republicans to cut spending and reduce the deficit,â€ said a senior administration official who briefed reporters on the budget on condition of anonymity. â€œThe debate in Washington isnâ€™t whether to cut or to spend. We both agree we should cut. The question is how we cut and what we cut.â€
Not all of the deficit reduction is in the form of spending cuts. Obama also is proposing an end to tax breaks enacted under former President George W. Bush for the nationâ€™s wealthiest earners. About two-thirds of the deficit reduction over 10 years would come from cuts. The rest would come from revenue increases.
The proposed budget includes a five-year freeze on non-national security discretionary spending, which would save $400 billion, and the elimination or trimming of dozens of programs.
Obama is proposing to cut $2.5 billion in heating assistance for low-income people, at least $1 billion in grants to large airports and $300 million from Community Development Block Grants, a program popular with local government officials nationwide.
â€œThis is a very difficult budget,â€ Jacob Lew, head of the White House budget office, said in a CNN interview Sunday. â€œWeâ€™re beyond the easy low hanging fruit.â€
The budget plan also would trim $78 billion from Pentagon spending over the next five years, eliminating additional transport planes, a Marine amphibious assault vehicle and an alternate engine for the Joint Strike Fighter. Those cuts mirror recommendations by Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates.
Also on the chopping block are a dozen tax breaks to oil, gas and coal producers worth $46 billion over 10 years.
â€œWe are reducing programs that are important programs that we care about,â€ Lew said. â€œWeâ€™re doing what every family does when it sits around its kitchen table. Weâ€™re making the choice about what do we need for the future.â€
While headlining the need to make painful cuts, officials insisted that selective budget boosts for education and infrastructure also are necessary.
The administration plans to expand Pell grants for college students, but would finance it through a $100 billion package of savings that could make it harder for some students to finance their education. The changes would eliminate the availability of the grants for summer students, and increase the costs of graduate school loans by having interest begin to accrue while students are in still in school, rather than after they graduate.
Officials also said the budget would include funding to bring high-speed Internet access to 98 percent of Americans and prepare for 100,000 new science and math teachers, but they offered few details on timing or financing.
The budget also would give tax breaks for investment and employment in 20 economically hard-hit areas of the country.
Obama seeks to solve, for now at least, some of the nationâ€™s more difficult budget problems. For instance, the budget would exempt many higher earners from the Alternative Minimum Tax for three years, but would do so by limiting tax deductions for those earning even more.
It also includes a two-year fix on the problems of Medicare reimbursements to physicians to head off a nearly 30 percent cut in payments, a problem Congress has been forced to solve by spending taxpayersâ€™ money each year.